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What is the Retina?

The retina, a delicate and vital component of the eye, is a thin layer of tissue that lines the innermost part of the eyeball. This remarkable structure plays a pivotal role in our visual perception by converting incoming light into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted via the optic nerve to the brain, where they form the images we perceive. Consequently, any damage to the retina can compromise our vision significantly.

About Retina Eye Surgery

Common Retinal Problems

  • Diabetic Retinopathy: For individuals with diabetes, the tiny blood vessels in the back of the eye may deteriorate, causing fluid leakage beneath the retina. This can lead to retinal swelling, resulting in blurred or distorted vision. Abnormal capillaries may also develop, leading to further vision impairment.
  • Retinal Vein Occlusion:When a vein in the retina becomes blocked, it can leak blood and fluid into the retina, causing the macula to swell and affecting central vision. Without proper blood circulation, nerve cells in the eye may die, leading to further vision loss.
  • Eye Floaters and Flashes and Posterior Vitreous Detachment:Floaters often occur due to natural changes in the eye with age. As the gel-like vitreous fluid in the eye ages, it may clump together and cast shadows on the retina, manifesting as floaters and flashes.
  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration: This condition primarily affects the central area of the retina, leading to symptoms such as blurred central vision or a blind spot in the centre of the visual field.
  • Macular Hole: A macular hole is a minor defect in the central part of the retina, known as the macula. It can develop due to abnormal traction between the retina and the vitreous or eye injury.
  • Macular Pucker or Epiretinal Membrane: The epiretinal membrane is a delicate scar-like tissue atop the retina, distorting vision. Objects may appear blurred or crooked.
  • Retinal Tears:A retinal tear occurs when the clear vitreous gel within the eye shrinks and tugs on the thin retinal tissue, leading to a break. Symptoms like floaters and flashing lights often accompany this condition.
  • Retinal Detachment: Fluid buildup under the retina characterises retinal detachment, often occurring when fluid passes through a retinal tear, causing the retina to separate from the underlying tissue layers.
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa: This inherited degenerative disease slowly affects the retina, resulting in the loss of night and peripheral vision.
  • Retina's Structural Complexity

  • The retina is a complex, transparent tissue of multiple layers, with only one layer containing light-sensitive photoreceptor cells. These photoreceptors, known as rods and cones, differ structurally and functionally, with rods being more sensitive to reduced light levels, providing night vision and cones being prominent in daylight vision, offering detailed and colour perception.
  • Function of the Retina

    Light enters the eye and passes through the lens; it falls upon the retina. Inside the retina, specialised photoreceptor cells react to light by converting it into electrical signals. These signals travel through the optic nerve to the brain, where they are processed into the images we perceive.

    Signs & Symptoms

    Blurry or distorted vision.

    Loss of peripheral vision.

    Double vision or diplopia.

    Light sensitivity.

    Risk Factors




    Diabetes or other medical conditions

    Eye trauma

    Family history of retinal diseases


    1- What are the symptoms of retinal diseases?

    The symptoms of retinal diseases can vary depending on the specific condition, but they may include floaters (black spots or cobwebs floating in front of your eye), flashes of light, blurry or distorted vision, loss of central or peripheral vision, sudden onset of vision loss, and dark curtain-like shadow across your visual field. If you experience any of these symptoms, it’s important to seek prompt medical attention for a detailed dilated retina examination from a retina specialist.

    2- What are the treatment options for retinal diseases?

    The treatment options for retinal diseases depend on the time of presentation, type, stage, and severity of the condition. The options may include medical management with eye drops or oral medications, laser therapy, intravitreal injections, and surgical intervention such as vitrectomy, retinal detachment repair, macular hole repair etc.

    3- Can diabetes cause retinal diseases?

    Yes, diabetes can cause retinal diseases like diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of vision loss among people with diabetes. Keeping blood sugar levels under control, regular treatment follow-ups to the diabetologist, and getting regular eye exams can help prevent or manage diabetic retinopathy.

    4- What is macular degeneration, and how is it treated?

    Macular degeneration is a common retinal disease that affects the central vision and can cause significant vision loss. Treatment options may include oral medications (multivitamins specifically for macular degeneration), laser therapy, and photodynamic therapy to slow the progression of the disease and preserve vision.

    5- What is intravitreal injection, and is it painful?

    Intravitreal injection is a minimally invasive procedure in which medication is injected into the vitreous gel (jelly-like material inside the eye) of the eye to treat retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular edema etc. The procedure is typically performed under strict aseptic precautions in an operation theatre with topical anesthesia i.e only using anesthetic eye drops to numb the eye.

    6- Do all myopes need retina examination?

    Yes, it is highly recommended. People with minus numbers are more prone to develop weak areas (Lattice Degeneration) and retinal holes. They are also at higher risk of retinal detachment, especially if there is also a family history.

    7- What is Lucentis/Accentrix injection for retinal diseases?

    Accentrix (ranibizumab) previously known as Lucentis is the FDA approved and current ‘GOLD STANDARD’ for treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration. worldwide. It is also approved for macular edema due to diabetes and vein occlusions.

    Expert Eye Retina Surgery & Specialist Treatment in Mumbai

    Testimonials from our patients

    We understand that clear and enhanced vision is a precious gift that transforms lives. With each individual and family, we’ve had the privilege to serve, our commitment to exceptional eye care has yielded more than just healthier eyes! We proudly share the heartfelt experiences of our patients, who have entrusted us with the chance to serve them, enhancing their life experiences.

    Neeraj Kumar

    i had went through my retina plus squint surgery went very well. Really got rid of the fear formy eye Thankyou Dr Pooja. You were really very excellent. Highly recommended.

    Siddharth Prakash

    This is a state of the art Ophthalmic center and is fully equipped. Dr Bhushan and Dr Pooja are very good clinically and very good with patients. My daughter has been seeing her for years and Dr Pooja’s friendly nature puts children at ease. | would recommend this eye clinic for all eye surgeries and also for eye check up for children.